IntroductionIn this article, I want to tell you about some general Microsoft SQL Server replication topics: replication topologies, replication types, and replication agents. I will also discuss Snapshot replication: how to check necessary conditions for this type of replication and how to backup and restore the databases in this replication scenario. To illustrated these concepts, I'll also be providing a step by step guide to setting up a Snapshot replication process. Because it's only a test example, I used only one server to replicate data: Publisher, Subscriber and Distributor databases resided on the same machine.
Replication is the process whereby data is copied between databases on the same server or different servers connected by LANs, WANs, or the Internet. Microsoft SQL Server replication uses a publisher, distributor and subscriber metaphor.
Publisher is the server or database that sends its data to another server or database.
Subscriber is the server or database that receives data from another server or database.
Distributor is the server that manages the flow of data through the replication system. This server contains the distribution database.
Publisher contains publication/publications. Publication is a collection of one or more articles that is sent to a subscriber server or database.
Article is the basic unit of replication and can be a table or a subset of a table.
Subscription is the group of data that a server or database will receive.
There are push and pull subscriptions. Push subscription is subscription when the publishing server will periodically push transactions out to the subscribing server or database.
Pull subscription is subscription when the subscribing server will periodically connect to the distribution database and pull information.
The Distribution database is a system database, which is stored on the Distributor and does not contain any user tables. This database is used to store snapshot jobs and all transactions waiting to be distributed to Subscribers.
Microsoft SQL Server supports the following replication topologies:
- Central publisher
- Central subscriber
- Central publisher with remote distributor
- Central distributor
- Publishing subscriber
This is one of the most used replication topologies. In this scenario, one server is configured as Publisher and Distributor and another server/servers is/are configured as Subscriber/Subscribers.
In this topology, the distribution database resides on another server than publisher. This topology is used for performance reasons when the level of replication activity increases or the server or network resources become constrained. It reduces Publisher loading, but it increases overall network traffic. This topology requires separate Microsoft SQL Server installations, one for the Publisher and one for the Distributor.
In this topology, several publishers use only one distributor, which resides on another server than publishers. This is one of the most rarely used replication topologies because it has only single point of failure (on the single server with central distributor), and if distributor's server will fail, the entire replication scenario will be destroyed.
This is a dual role topology. In this topology, two servers publish the same data. One publishing server sends data to the subscriber, and then this subscriber publishes data to any number of other subscribers. This is useful when a Publisher must send data to Subscribers over a slow or expensive communications link.
With Transactional replication, SQL Server captures all changes that were made in an article and stores INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements in the distribution database. These changes are then sent to subscribers from the distribution database and applied in the same order. Transactional replication is best used when the replicated data changes frequently or when the size of replicated data is not small and is not necessary to support autonomous changes of the replicated data on the Publisher and on the Subscriber.
Merge replication is the most difficult replication type. It makes possible autonomous changes to replicated data on the Publisher and on the Subscriber. With Merge replication, SQL Server captures all incremental data changes in the source and in the target databases, and reconciles conflicts according to rules you configure or using a custom resolver you create. Merge replication is best used when you want to support autonomous changes of the replicated data on the Publisher and on the Subscriber.
- Snapshot Agent
- Log Reader Agent
- Distribution Agent
- Merge Agent
The Distribution Agent is a replication agent that moves the snapshot jobs from the distribution database to Subscribers, and moves all transactions waiting to be distributed to Subscribers. The Distribution Agent is used in Snapshot and Transactional replications and can be administered by using SQL Server Enterprise Manager.
The Merge Agent is a replication agent that applies initial snapshot jobs from the publication database tables to Subscribers, and merges incremental data changes that have occurred since the initial snapshot was created. The Merge Agent is used only in Merge replication.
So, if you want to set up replication you must change the account the MSSQLServer and SQLServerAgent services runs under to a account with the Windows NT/Windows 2000 administrator's rights. If your Microsoft SQL Server runs on Windows NT or Windows 2000, you can create a Windows NT/Windows 2000 account and include it in the local Administrators group and the Domain Users group, and set Log in as a service permission for this account.
Windows 9x does not support Windows NT services, so if your Microsoft SQL Server runs on Windows 9x, you do not need to create an SQL account.
2. Only members of the sysadmin server role can set up and configure replication, so if you do not have these rights, you cannot set up replication.
3. Don't forget to start the SQLServerAgent service (and the MSSQLServer service, of course).
4. You should allocate adequate disk space in the snapshot folder.
5. You should allocate adequate disk space for the distribution database.
6. You should ensure that the server being replicated to is defined as a remote server.
First of all, you should register the remote server to be replicated. Because I use only one server to replicate data, I don't need to make this step. Figure 1 shows the remote server name (the same as the local server name, in this case).
In this example, I will replicate data from the pubs database into pubs_copy database.
Select Tools => Replication => Configure Publishing, Subscribers, and Distribution... as shown in Figure 3.
This will launch the Configure Publishing and Distribution Wizard, as shown in Figure 4.
Select the Next button to create the Distributor, as shown in Figure 5.
Here you can configure SQLServerAgent service to start automatically when the computer is started. Check Yes, configure the SQL Server Agent service to start automatically and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 6.
Specify snapshot folder using a network path and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 7.
Now you can customize the publishing and distribution settings, or you can choose the default settings. Check No, use the following default settings and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 8.
Click the Finish button, as shown in Figure 9.
Microsoft SQL Server created the distribution database, enabled publishing, and installed the distributor. Once completed, you should see Figure 10.
Click OK button and see Figure 11. As we installed CHIGRIK as Distributor, so Replication monitor has been added to the console tree on CHIGRIK server. Click Close button.
Now we are ready to start creating publications and articles. Select Tools => Replication => Create and Manage Publications as shown in Figure 12.
You will see Create and Manage Publications dialog box, as shown in Figure 13. Choose pubs database and click the Create Publication button.
The Create Publication wizard will be launch. Click the Next button, as shown in Figure 14.
Choose the pubs database and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 15.
Select Snapshot publication and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 16.
Select all of the types of Subscribers that you expect to subscribe to this publication and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 17.
Choose authors table to publish as article and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 18.
Specify pubs_article as the publication name and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 19.
You can specify data filters on this step, but in this example, we don't use any data filters. Check No, create the publication as specified and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 20.
Click the Finish button to create the publication, as shown in Figure 21.
Now the 'pubs_article' publication was created, so click the Close button, as shown in Figure 22.
Now you can create new subscription. Click the Push New Subscription button, as shown in Figure 23.
This will launch the Push Subscription wizard shown in Figure 24. Click the Next button.
Select CHIGRIK to select all subscribers in that group and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 25.
Select pubs_copy database as the subscription database and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 26.
Specify how frequently Distribution Agent updates the subscription (in this example, every 1 day(s), every 20 minute(s) between 9:00:00 and 18:00:00) and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 27.
Check Start the Snapshot Agent to begin the initialization process immediately and click the Next button, as shown in Figure 28.
Click the Next button, as shown in Figure 29.
Click the Finish button to subscribe with the options you specified on the previous steps, as shown in Figure 30.
Click the Close button, as shown in Figure 31.
Click the Close button to close the Create and Manage Publication dialog, as shown in Figure 23. Note. On the last step we got the following message:
|The subscription at Subscriber 'CHIGRIK' cannot be initialized immediately because the snapshot for this publication is not yet available. To initialize the subscription, start the Distribution Agent after the snapshot is available.|
There are four main strategies for backing up and restoring Snapshot replication:
- Backup Publisher, master and model databases.
- Backup Publisher, Distributor, master and model databases.
- Backup Publisher, Subscriber(s), master and model databases.
- Backup Publisher, Distributor, Subscriber(s), master and model databases.
Backing up Publisher, Distributor, master and model databases is a more frequently used strategy than the first one, because in this case you don't need to reestablish replication in the event of a Publisher or Distributor failure. The main disadvantage of this strategy is that you need to backup Publisher and Distributor's databases simultaneously (or as closely as possible). It also requires more computing and storage resources than the first way.
Backing up Publisher, Subscriber(s), master and model databases reduces the amount of time required to recover a Subscriber(s) by avoiding the need to reinitialize the Subscriber(s) with a new snapshot, but in the event of a Distributor failure, you should setup replication from the beginning.
Backup Publisher, Distributor, Subscriber(s), master and model databases is the most complex backup strategy. The main advantage of this strategy is that in the event of a Publisher, Distributor or Subscriber(s) failure, you can quickly restore fail database without setting up replication from the beginning. The disadvantage of this strategy is that you need to backup Publisher and Distributor's databases simultaneously (or as closely as possible), and this strategy requires the most computing and storage resources.
For each of the strategies you should backup msdb and master databases on the Publisher, Distributor and Subscriber(s). msdb database is used by SQL Server Agent for scheduling alerts and jobs (it also contains snapshot jobs), and master database is a main system database contains entries for each Subscriber(s), each login account, about system configuration settings and so on.
How Snapshot Replication Works
Snapshots can be generated and applied either immediately after the subscription is created or according to a schedule set at the time the publication is created. The Snapshot Agent prepares snapshot files containing the schema and data of published tables and database objects, stores the files in the snapshot folder for the Publisher, and records tracking information in the distribution database on the Distributor. You specify a default snapshot folder when you configure a Distributor, but you can specify an alternate location for a publication instead of or in addition to the default. For more information, see Alternate Snapshot Folder Locations.
|In addition to the standard snapshot process described in this topic, a two-part snapshot process is used for merge publications with parameterized filters. For more information, see Snapshots for Merge Publications with Parameterized Filters.|
For merge replication, a snapshot is generated every time the Snapshot Agent runs. For transactional replication, snapshot generation depends on the setting of the publication property immediate_sync. If the property is set to TRUE (the default when using the New Publication Wizard), a snapshot is generated every time the Snapshot Agent runs, and it can be applied to a Subscriber at any time. If the property is set to FALSE (the default when using sp_addpublication), the snapshot is generated only if a new subscription has been added since the last Snapshot Agent run; Subscribers must wait for the Snapshot Agent to complete before they can synchronize.
The Snapshot Agent performs the following steps:
The Snapshot Agent performs the following steps:
Establishes a connection from the Distributor to the Publisher, and then takes locks on published tables if necessary:
- For merge publications, the Snapshot Agent does not take any locks.
- For transactional publications, by default the Snapshot Agent take locks only during the initial phase of snapshot generation.
- For snapshot publications, locks are held during the entire snapshot generation process.
- Writes a copy of the table schema for each article to a .sch file. If other database objects are published, such as indexes, constraints, stored procedures, views, user-defined functions, and so on, additional script files are generated.
- Copies the data from the published table at the Publisher and writes the data to the snapshot folder. The snapshot is generated as a set of bulk copy program (BCP) files.
For snapshot and transactional publications, the Snapshot Agent appends rows to the MSrepl_commands and MSrepl_transactions tables in the distribution database. The entries in the MSrepl_commands
table are commands indicating the location of .sch and .bcp files, any
other snapshot files, and references to any pre- or post-snapshot
scripts. The entries in the MSrepl_transactions table are commands relevant to synchronizing the Subscriber.
For merge publications, the Snapshot Agent performs additional steps. For more information, see How Merge Replication Initializes Publications and Subscriptions.
- Releases any locks on published tables.
For snapshot and transactional replication, the Distribution Agent performs the following steps:
- Establishes a connection to the Distributor.
- Examines the MSrepl_commands and MSrepl_transactions tables in the distribution database on the Distributor. The agent reads the location of the snapshot files from the first table and Subscriber synchronization commands from both tables.
- Applies the schema and commands to the subscription database.
- Establishes a connection to the Publisher.
- Examines the sysmergeschemachange table on the Publisher and determines whether there is a new snapshot that should be applied at the Subscriber.
- If a new snapshot is available, the Merge Agent applies to the subscription database the snapshot files from the location specified in sysmergeschemachange.